Ohyan Law Group 歐陽婉貞律師事務所

Ohyan Law Group is the leading provider of immigration, employment, and property law services. We will get you the legal outcome you deserve.

Ohyan Law Group provides expert legal services in immigration, employment, and property law. We are committed to giving you the highest quality legal representation to help you resolve your case quickly and to your satisfaction. The most important qualities you need in legal representation are dependability and expertise. We ensure that you have all of the answers you need, and provide fast responses to your questions. We are available to respond to your needs within 24 hours, so that you have all the information needed to gain peace of mind with your case. Ohyan Law Group specializes in immigration, employment, and real property cases to meet a variety of legal needs. All individuals are entitled to legal representation, and you deserve to have a legal team that will fight for the outcomes you want. If you need assistance with immigration issues, we can provide you with help on any related issues that arise: Temporary work visas Family visas Investment and employment immigration Citizenship and naturalization ...and more Ohyan Law Group can help business owners in need of legal assistance for their companies. Employment legal issues can be detrimental to your business. They can cost you time, money, and security. We’ll give you the legal guidance that has the interests of you and your business at heart, while giving you the freedom to manage your business for success. If you’re an employee, our expert team can support you in resolving workers’ compensation claims and employment disputes. Workers deserve the same fair treatment and representation as businesses, and we’re committed to providing that service to our clients. For more information about our services, visit us at www.ohyanlawgroup.com, or call us at (713) 772-9622 to speak to one our staff.

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Network for Jesus

認識神,由孩童開始,天國的正是這樣的人。
耶穌說:
讓小孩子到我這裡來,不要禁止他們,
因為在天國的正是這樣的人。
馬太福音 19章14節

我们的一位公司客户因加班问题在联邦法院被起诉。结果我们的客户并不受加班法律的管辖。

因此案子今天被驳回。你的公司需要支付加班费吗,如果是的话,如何降低或规避诉讼风险。请电话我们咨询

[02/10/16]   F1 visa students may be allowed to work in the US for 6 years after February 12, 2016
August 21, 2015
Judge’s ruling paves way for executive actions within 6 months.

By Sujeet Rajan
Follow @ambazaarmag
NEW YORK: A ruling by a judge of the District Court in the District of Columbia has potentially paved the way for students on F1 visas graduating with certain STEM degrees to be able to get Optional Practical Training (OPT) work permits for a period as lengthy as six years, equivalent to H-1B visa holders, after February 12, 2016.
The ruling by U.S. District Court Judge Ellen Huvelle of the District of Columbia, on August 12, was a classic case of a double whammy for the Washington Alliance of Technology Workers (WATW). They actually won the lawsuit they had pursued against allowing F1 visa students graduating with STEM degrees additional OPT time – but is likely to end on a dismal note.
That’s because despite the negative ruling, the F1 students are likely to get even more time to stay on and work in the US, if the Barack Obama administration complies with their promised Executions Actions, which has been in the pipeline for implementation.
Even though the F1 students came up on the wrong end of the lawsuit, the judge’s ruling may be actually a blessing in disguise. The ruling has acted as one door closing, only for the prospect of another, better door opening in the near future; less than six months away, in fact.
The judge, in response to the WATW lawsuit to curtail an additional 17 months of OPT for F1 students who graduate with certain STEM degrees, and to limit it to just 12 months, ruled that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) must vacate that rule which came into effect more than seven years ago, by February 12, 2016.
Related Story: 3 Indian Americans plead guilty to F-1 visa, financial aid fraud at colleges in New York and New Jersey
The judge determined that the 2008 DHS rule was deficient because the agency failed to publish the rule for a public notice and comment period as required by Federal rulemaking provisions, according to Seyfarth Shaw, a prominent law firm.
Acknowledging that immediately vacating the rule would be disruptive and harmful to the U.S. technology sector and force many foreign students to leave the U.S., the judge stayed it until February 12, 2016, a period during which DHS may submit the rule for proper public notice and comment to “cure the defect”.
At present, the OPT for international students who finish either an undergraduate or graduate program from an DHS certified educational institution in the US is either 12 months – for non-STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Math) related programs – or 29 months, for STEM related programs.
During this period of time, students are allowed to take up any work in their field of study and be paid for it, or not be as a trainee, as the case may. It’s also a crucial time for students who intend to stay on in the US to stake their roots, prove to be an asset at work. Their best bet is to have their company sponsor them with an H-1B visa during the OPT time-frame. If that fails, or even after the company sponsors them for an H-1B visa, but they don’t make the cut in the lottery system due to soaring H-1B visa demand, their next best alternative is to study further, stay on as a legal resident. Ultimately, to try their luck anew at another shot at a work visa.
Many students, however, are forced to go back to their country of origin; cannot afford further studies at exorbitant tuition rates. Some do end up studying further, in hopes their fortunes will change in the next round of application for a work visa. But there is no guarantee plans will work out.
Related Story: F1 visa students may be allowed to work for 6 years in the USA, like H-1B visa holders
To help the F1 students, especially those with STEM degrees, have a better shot at job employment and continue to stay on in the US, the DHS had proposed to make it a level playing field for F1 students, and give benefits startlingly equivalent to H-1B visa holders.
According to new regulations proposed by the DHS and submitted before the Senate Judiciary Committee, students with STEM degrees can stay on in the US and work for a total of six years under OPT – three years after finishing an undergraduate program, and then if need be, another three years after a graduate program.
Also, for students graduating with non-STEM U.S. degree programs, but who have an earlier STEM degree under the belt, the work period will be good for three years. For example, a student who did an undergraduate program in IT or Physics, and then goes for an MBA, the student would be entitled for three years of OPT, based on his or her undergraduate STEM-related program. For non-STEM related programs, the time-frame for OPT would still remain 12 months.
Till this ruling by judge Huvelle on August 12, it was not determined as to how long DHS would take to implement the new rules for OPT, to benefit students on F1 visas. It was likely that it would not have happened before at least July of next year. There was also the possibility that with elections around the corner, and the immigration debate heating up, the executive actions may have been deferred till a new president took office, in January, 2017.
Not anymore.
The DHS would now likely keep its promise to extend OPT for students on F1 visas, after February 12, 2016. It’s also a possibility that DHS may just comply with the judge’s ruling and go ahead with the regulations required to maintain status quo. If that happens, the then present 29 months and 12 months, respectively, for F1 students to go through with their OPT, would remain in place.
It’s hard to imagine the DHS not complying with the judge’s orders, which would force tens of thousands of students currently under OPT to immediately pack their bags and leave for their home countries.
Earlier this year, the DHS started to give work permits to certain H-4 visa holders who meet eligibility requirements. Again, this was part of the executive actions by president Obama.
It’s also important to remember that competition for H-1B visas has increased a lot. In the 2016 H-1B cap which opened on April 1, 2015, the limit of 65,000 H-1B visas for skilled workers from overseas and 20,000 visas for F1 students, was reached on April 7, 2015. The USCIS received approximately 233,000 H-1B petitions, nearly three times the number of available visas.
In 2008, DHS estimated that there were approximately 70,000 foreign nationals in F-1 status on OPT, and that one third of those students had earned degrees in STEM fields. The 2008 rule was introduced by DHS to address the immediate competitive disadvantage faced by U.S. high-tech industries, and with the hope of quickly ameliorating the adverse impact on the U.S. economy.
Judge Huvelle’s ruling has also no impact at present for students who are under OPT.
F-1 students with an approved STEM OPT extension are eligible to continue working while DHS complies with the court’s ruling. USCIS is expected to continue to adjudicate pending applications for STEM OPT extensions and accept new applications. To reinstate STEM OPT and avoid interruption of employment authorization for current F-1 STEM OPT beneficiaries, DHS is now required to publish a STEM OPT regulation through regular notice and comment procedures and take necessary steps to implement the rule prior to February 12, 2016.
If DHS does implement the six years of OPT for STEM graduates, it would be hard for even the likes of Donald Trump to complain.
Although Trump has come out swinging against expanding the H-1B work visas, and wants to curtail and shut them down, he has been in favor of helping foreign students who graduate from US universities, get job opportunities here.
(Sujeet Rajan is Editor-in-Chief, The American Bazaar)
Recommended
Related:
F1 visa students may be allowed to work for 6 years in the USA, like H-1B visa holders
Final rule on work permits for H4 visa holders by December 2014-January 2015
More students coming from India to the US, but overall trail by over 176,000 in number to Chinese students
Chuck Grassley opposes DHS move to extend OPT to 6 years for students on F1 visas

attorneyow.com

腾博会,腾博会官网,真人腾博会

專業簽證(H1B)

今年四月一日將再度開放H1b工作簽證申請。一個外國人可以申請H1b的簽證,可以因此居留美國至少6年。此簽證的特點如下:
• 申請者必需從事專業。所謂“專業”是指職業需有專門知識或理論,如:會計、針炙、電腦,市場分析研究、老師…等專業性的職業。通常至少要有大學學士學位。
• 申請者必需向勞工部遞交工作情況的申請書。
• 雇主必需為申請者(受雇者)繳交申請的費用。基本上有3種費用:申請H1b的簽證費用$325元。若雇主雇用25位以上全天的受雇人員需交付$1,500元。若少於25位全天的受雇人員則只需交付750元。另外雇主,還需繳交500元防詐欺的費用。
• 雇主需支付100% 流行工資(prevailing wage) 給這個新員工。
• 工作必需是具永久性的工作。
• 申請者必需是美國的企業體。

每年H1b的簽證有65,000個名額。若扣除新加坡、智利的保留名額,真正可用的名額為58,000個名額。(不包括高等學歷者如已具備碩士學位者…等)但若是屬高等學術機構、或與高等學術機構有關的非營利事業的機構、或非營利事業的研究機構、或政府機關的研究機構的申請者,則不受申請的名額限制。申請H1b簽證的人第一次可以有3年的居留時間,之後還可以申請再延期3年,共可停留6年的時間。但有兩種例外,可以停留超過6年的時間:
(1) 在6 年屆滿前,受僱者已提出勞工證申請或職業移民申請超過365天,尚未有任何決定,則可申請延長期限。一次可申請延期一年。
(2) 在6年屆滿前,受僱者已有職業移民申請批准,但因為排期未到,還無法送調整身份的申請,則可每次申請三年的延期。
歐陽婉貞律師事務所
提供所有在美國經營企業的一條龍服務,包括移民,商業契約,僱傭等。 電話:713-772-9622 傳真: 832-665-2035 電子郵件:[email protected] 網站:www.attorneyow.com

attorneyow.com

[01/29/16]   持B签证的小孩,可否在公立学校上学?

周先生和周太太爱女儿心切,送她到美国的阿姨家玩玩,看看能不能适应美国学校。女儿拿了B2签证,来到美国,阿姨就为她在当地公立高中注册读书。女儿聪明用功,适应很快,读书表现很好。暑假回中国看望周先生及周太太后,又以B2签证进关,想要继续高中的学业。结果,在机场转机时,被海关拘押。周先生,周太太及阿姨着急的不知所措。

B2签证是来美国观光旅游,根据移民法,是不可以读书的。只有下列例外情况,才可以读书:
转换成学生签证 (F1或M签证)-不仅已经向移民局递出转换的申请案件,且也已拿到移民局许可,才可以开始上学读书。
如果不是正式学习的课程(拿到学位或专业证书),而只是短期,非正式的课程,譬如:语言学习,烹饪,工艺的课程,或参与暑期活动或旅游计划,学习只是附带性的,不是正式的学习课程
短期语言学习,每周不超过18小时

但是,许多拿B2 签证的孩子,实际上在当地的公立小学或中学读书。公立学校并不会拒绝他们,也不会向他们要任何有关孩子们或家长们在美国的合法身份的证件。这不是因为这件事没有违反移民法,只是美国同时具有平等教育的权利的政策。
1. 美国联邦法律要求州政府及各地学区应当提供给所有学生有平等接受公立小学或中学的教育的权利,禁止任何歧视行为。

2.美国最高法院认为受教育对孩子的未来很重要,再者,他们在美国是否有合法身份,常不是他们的错,拒绝让他们受教育,使他们不能在社会中生存,剥夺他们将来为社会提供贡献的机会。所以早在1982年就决定对所有在美国的孩子,不管他们父母在美国身份如何,不管他们自己在美国的身份如何,都有在公立学校接受教育的权利。

所以,美国公立学校不能拒绝孩子上学。学校只能要求家长或学生提供在学区附近的居住证明。这种居住证明,包括水电费账单,租约影本,或其他文件,而不是护照签证资料。学校可能要求孩子的出生证明,但这只是要确保孩子的年龄在学校的最低或最高的年龄层内,学校不能因孩子在外国出生,而拒绝孩子在学校受教育。有些学校要求社安号码时,必须表明这是可有可无的资料,如果学生拒绝提供社安号码,学校也不能因此拒绝孩子入学。

所以,拿B1 或 B2 签证的孩子,虽然可在美国公立学校上学,但却是违反移民法的规定。本例中,周先生的女儿会被海关扣押,就是因为她违反了移民法的规定。一旦违反移民法规定,周先生的女儿除非符合豁免的条件,以后她不仅不能再申请B2延期,且不能转换成学生签证 (F1或M签证),后果严重。所以,凡是要送孩子来美国长期读书的家长,务必小心策划,考虑清楚。任何可能会造成孩子失去在美国正常受教育的行为,都不要去做。(欧阳婉贞律师)

abovethelaw.com

4 Edits I Have Never Made

A very useful article in legal writing.

abovethelaw.com What edits has columnist Mark Herrmann never made to a brief over the course of three decades practicing law?

[09/24/15]   大休斯顿地区如何面对经济低迷?

最近休斯顿因为石油价格低迷,很多石油公司裁员,很多石油专业人士或石油有关的公司都受到很大的影响。 譬如2015年初,休斯顿市区名列全美第三拥有最多的500强企业总部 ,次于纽约和芝加哥。可惜好景可能不再。几个大公司,包括 Baker Hughes 和Cameron International 正在进行合并收购程序,其他几家公司也是石油有关的行业,生意也因石油价格大跌,收益大量减少。休斯顿明年看来无法保持领先地位了。 另外,许多公司大楼因为石油有关公司裁员,缩减公司面积,很多空屋冒出来。吸引新房客成了大楼房东的新挑战。

但此同时,中国企业家仍然络绎不绝,前来美国开发可能投资机会,这些人面对陌生的美国投资环境,不晓得该投资在那里,不晓得该如何在美国经营企业。有位负责连接美国及中国及台湾企业的联络人说,曾有一位在中国很成功的企业家邀请他一起合作,条件是中国企业家出资美金五百万,他只要出资一百万,他负责经营,一起帮这个中国企业发展美国市场。

其实,这两种现象摆在一起,给大休斯顿地区企业者一个绝佳蜕变的契机:
1. 是否当尝试多元化经营路线,分散风险?这次石油价格大跌,让很多平常坐享高薪的石油专业人士,忽然面对从来没有的经济困境。这个变化有可能短期内,不会过去,而且未来还可能再发生。那么,是否须重新检讨经营策略?是否需要采取多元化经营,分散风险呢?
2. 重视连接及团队合作。中美双方的精英,面对几百年难得的中国经济雄厚势力崛起,是否该好好想如何彼此团结合作,共谋双赢策略?

我曾用一个比喻:

一位曾在中国战果辉煌的英勇骑士,骑着那陪他东征西跑的雄马,来到美国,寻找传说已久的宝藏。他该如何顺利地找到宝藏?
用曾在中国使用,帮他找到宝藏的方法,来找美国的宝藏?
研读密密麻麻的英文地图说明书?
花钱找一只曾去过那藏宝藏地方的老马,带他去找?

刚来美国的中国企业家,不管您在中国曾多辉煌,面对新环境,您要如何做?
可否再继续用过去在中国用的方法,经营企业吗?
阅读厚厚的成功经营畅销着作?来不及。有些还是英文写的,看不懂。
花钱找到您需要的老马- 有经验的人才?

建立团队,是这位中国英勇骑士迅速找到美国宝藏的捷径!圣经就说到:“謀士眾多,所謀乃成。”(箴言 15:22)

中美双方精英该好好思考如何运用彼此长处,在这个特别的经济环境下,来连接合作,共图大计。一方有资金,另一方有人脉及专业能力。双方一定要设计出公平合理的合作方式,不要让对方吃亏,合作才能长久。双方一定要坦诚布公,才能紧密合作,将彼此长处化成 1+1 = 无穷的有利结果。

欧阳婉贞

[09/24/15]   绿卡申请人,注意!你可能可以提早申请转换身份了!

国务院最近发布两种新的排期表,预计2015年10月开始适用。
传统的排期表是移民名额的排期表。美国移民法对亲属(除了公民的配偶,父母及子女外)及职业移民每年的名额设有限制,同时对各国的名额,也要求不能超过一定的百分比。因为每年有超过名额的移民案件的申请,因此产生排期表。
在过去,中国,印度,墨西哥移民人口很多,因此有很长的排期。如果排期没有到,表示没有移民名额,所以有关的申请人,不仅不能得到绿卡,也不能递送绿卡申请第二步I-485文件(转换身份)或进行大使馆签证程序,取得绿卡。
绿卡申请包括两大步骤:第一步是先取得绿卡申请的资格,表格是 I-130 (亲属移民) 或 I-140(职业移民)。第二步骤包括两条路:
1. 如果申请人在美国,走I-485转换身份程序.
2. 如果申请人在美国境外,透过全国签证中心,走大使馆签证。
第一步是看你有无申请绿卡的资格,包括,你是否是符合资格的亲属或某种职业的人士。第二步端视当年有无移民的名额。如果没有移民名额,纵算第一步通过,申请人仍无法取得绿卡。
如果申请人在美国,I-485可否申请,对申请人的利益,影响很大:(1)申请人如果没有其他签证时,I-485 关系申请人可否在美国继续合法居留,(2) 关系申请人能否同时申请取得工卡,在美国合法工作,(3)也关系申请人能否同时申请回美签,在拿到绿卡前,离开美国,到其他国家去处理商务或探亲或从事其他重要活动。譬如美国公民的已婚中国子女,年满21岁后,可以马上递送I-130 申请文件;但是I-485申请绿卡第二步的文件, 根据今年9月排期表,需要等大约11年4个月,才能递送。所以这类的申请人,纵然取得第一步核准通知,如果没有其他合法居留的签证,仍不能合法继续居留在美国。所以,在过去很多取得移民资格的人,却是违法居留在美国,因为排期还没到,I-485还不能递交给移民局。这种法律效力分裂情况,可望在新增加的排期表出来后,改善许多。
10月开始施行的新排期有两种排期:(1)最后行动日期; (2)案件递交申请日期。第一种日期,就是传统的排期,但缩小适用范围:(i)只是绿卡名额的排期(ii)在美国境内转换身份的日期。
第二种日期是递送申请文件日期;这种日期,主要是指透过全国签证中心,开始办理大使馆签证申请的日期。本来,不适用在在美国境内转换身份的申请。但是国务院可以根据需要,特别允许将此第二种日期也作为在美国境内转换身份的日期。而2015年10月就有这样规定。因此,许多人,就可提早递送I-485转换身份的申请。
譬如绿卡持有人的未满21岁的未婚的孩子,I-130件递送时间是2014年6月,因此,这个孩子的排队日期是2014年6月。根据10月份国务院发布的排期表,绿卡持有人的未满21岁的未婚的孩子,第一种排期是2014年 4月15日,第二种排期是2015年 3月1日。所以,有绿卡名额的日期是2014年 4月15日,所以他还拿不到绿卡。如果他人在国外,根据第二种日期,可以开始办理大使馆签证申请手续(不过拿不到绿卡)。本来第二种日期,对人在美国的这类身份的人不适用,所以, 这类身份的人,本来不能开始申请转换身份。但因为国务院特别允许,所以这类身份的孩子,如果在美国,可在10月1日后递交I-485岁申请文件,转换身份。
这是一大福音,因为这表示许多人可以因为提早送交I-485 表后,合法继续停留在美国;可以同时申请工卡,于取得工卡后,开始合法工作;可以同时申请回美签,短期离开美国办事探亲。

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[05/14/15]   持B签证的小孩,可否在公立学校上学?

周先生和周太太爱女儿心切,送她到美国的阿姨家玩玩,看看能不能适应美国学校。女儿拿了B2签证,来到美国,阿姨就为她在当地公立高中注册读书。女儿聪明用功,适应很快,读书表现很好。暑假回中国看望周先生及周太太后,又以B2签证进关,想要继续高中的学业。结果,在机场转机时,被海关拘押。周先生,周太太及阿姨着急的不知所措。

B2签证是来美国观光旅游,根据移民法,是不可以读书的。只有下列例外情况,才可以读书:
转换成学生签证 (F1或M签证)-不仅已经向移民局递出转换的申请案件,且也已拿到移民局许可,才可以开始上学读书。
如果不是正式学习的课程(拿到学位或专业证书),而只是短期,非正式的课程,譬如:语言学习,烹饪,工艺的课程,或参与暑期活动或旅游计划,学习只是附带性的,不是正式的学习课程
短期语言学习,每周不超过18小时

但是,许多拿B2 签证的孩子,实际上在当地的公立小学或中学读书。公立学校并不会拒绝他们,也不会向他们要任何有关孩子们或家长们在美国的合法身份的证件。这不是因为这件事没有违反移民法,只是美国同时具有平等教育的权利的政策。
1. 美国联邦法律要求州政府及各地学区应当提供给所有学生有平等接受公立小学或中学的教育的权利,禁止任何歧视行为。

2.美国最高法院认为受教育对孩子的未来很重要,再者,他们在美国是否有合法身份,常不是他们的错,拒绝让他们受教育,使他们不能在社会中生存,剥夺他们将来为社会提供贡献的机会。所以早在1982年就决定对所有在美国的孩子,不管他们父母在美国身份如何,不管他们自己在美国的身份如何,都有在公立学校接受教育的权利。

所以,美国公立学校不能拒绝孩子上学。学校只能要求家长或学生提供在学区附近的居住证明。这种居住证明,包括水电费账单,租约影本,或其他文件,而不是护照签证资料。学校可能要求孩子的出生证明,但这只是要确保孩子的年龄在学校的最低或最高的年龄层内,学校不能因孩子在外国出生,而拒绝孩子在学校受教育。有些学校要求社安号码时,必须表明这是可有可无的资料,如果学生拒绝提供社安号码,学校也不能因此拒绝孩子入学。

所以,拿B1 或 B2 签证的孩子,虽然可在美国公立学校上学,但却是违反移民法的规定。本例中,周先生的女儿会被海关扣押,就是因为她违反了移民法的规定。一旦违反移民法规定,周先生的女儿除非符合豁免的条件,以后她不仅不能再申请B2延期,且不能转换成学生签证 (F1或M签证),后果严重。所以,凡是要送孩子来美国长期读书的家长,务必小心策划,考虑清楚。任何可能会造成孩子失去在美国正常受教育的行为,都不要去做。(欧阳婉贞律师)

[05/04/15]   员工(Employee)与契约工(Independent Contractor)的区别

张老板开了一家地板公司,请了2个墨西哥裔的工人帮忙搬运货物。一小时美金7元。工作时间从早上7点到晚上7点。为了省去报税的花费及麻烦,就以契约工的方式付薪水。每年请会计师发1099表。有一天早上张老板发现其中一位工人,偷偷地搬了几箱地板,拿去卖给他做装修的朋友。张老板一气之下,把他开除了。过几天,劳工部检查员来访,要查他公司的薪资帐册。

员工与契约工在法律上所享的待遇是不一样的。员工有最低工资及超时工资的保护。契约工就没有这些保护。雇主必须替员工每月报雇佣税。每年要发W2表.雇主不须替契约工缴雇佣税,年底则是给1099表。有些雇主为了逃避雇佣税或最低工资或超时工资的规定,就对为他工作的人以契约工的方式来处理。这种方式是否合法?

替雇主做事的工人,到底是员工或契约工,劳工部基本上会用6个标准来衡量:
1. 工人所做的事,是否是雇主业务的一部分?譬如,张老板卖地板,这些墨西哥裔工人替他搬运地板,属于他的业务的一部分,这些工人很可能就会被归类为员工。但如果张老板公司的厕所下水道坏了,找了人来修理,这工人就是契约工,因为下水道的修理,不是他的地板业务的一部分。
2. 工人的经营能力是否对他获利或损失有影响? 在工人工作过程中,是否需要使用他的经营能力,而且如果使用到他经营能力,是否对他的获利或损失的机会有影响?如果工人使用到他的经营能力,且对他的工资会有影响的话,他可能是契约工。譬如,如果工人自己有他的一队人员,来替张老板做事,这个工人的经营团队的能力或谈判工资的能力如何,就会影响他的工资高低,那么他可能就可算为契约工。
3. 工人和雇主各自对工作中使用的器具设备或场地上投资的情况如何?如果工人的投资金额比雇主所投资的更重大,或投资范围远远超过为雇主所做的特定工程的范围,那么这个工人,就可能被归类为契约工。
4. 工人的技能或自主性如何?工人在工作中,是否被要求独立判断或具高度自主性?不需要指导训练?如果答案是,就可能算为契约工。
5. 工人工作的期间如何?如果工人被雇的期间是永久性或不定期,就可能被算为员工。
6. 雇主是否对工人有控制权?雇主如果对工人有实质上的控制权,譬如对工人可决定是否雇佣,是否开除解雇,薪资多少,工作时数,工作时间,如何完成工作,等等,这个工人就可能算为员工。

劳工部就是根据这6个因素做整体的评估。在本例中,张老板雇佣工人做搬运地板的工作,根据这6个标准很可能会被归为员工。一旦被归为员工,最低工资及超时工资的规定,就适用在他们身上。德州最低工资是$7.25元。张老板的工人每周工作时间超过40小时,就有超时工资的问题,对超过40小时后的每小时须至少付一倍半的薪水($10.875元)。

劳工部对雇主将员工报为契约工的做法,一旦发现后,就有严厉的处罚。不仅要求雇主把欠给的工资付给员工,而且再加上同等金额做为损害赔偿。如果是再犯或故意违犯,则就每一个违反行为,另有$1,100元的罚金。劳工部可以有2年的追诉时效;如果顾主是故意违反规定,追诉时效变为3年。

总之,雇主在处理员工或契约工的时候,要注意:不能为了省钱省麻烦,将属于员工的工人,用契约工的方式处理,给自己留下很大的麻烦。曾有一家生意非常好的餐厅,就因为劳工问题没有处理好,被罚了大笔款,无法缴出,最后关门倒闭。因此,雇主要注意这方面的问题。

欧阳婉贞律师

ohyanlawgroup.com

| Law Office of W. OhYan, PLLC

如何選擇加盟企業(Franchise)
——進入美國市場一條途徑
許多投資人對美國投資環境有興趣,常常到處尋找投資項目。但是,因為對美國投資環境及操作方式不熟悉,找不到好的投資項目,或縱算找到好的投資項目,也無法成功的經營。加盟企業,可以是這些新來的投資者,一個好的選擇方向。根據一些業者指出,自己開創一個新興企業存活率是20%,購買現存企業是50%,而購買加盟企業是90%的存活率。這種說法對新進來的投資者,更是如此。

什麽是加盟企業?
加盟企業主要有兩個參與方:加盟企業主(Franchisor)及加盟企業商(Franchisee)。
加盟企業有幾項特點:
經營方法:加盟企業主設計好已行之有年的經營方法,可訓練輔助加盟企業商來經營企業;
商標或商號:加盟企業主已建立品牌,有獨特的商標或商號,可讓加盟企業商使用來推展企業;
特權/義務:加盟企業商對加盟企業主提供的服務及使用特權,支付權利金及其他費用;加盟企業主有義務來協助加盟企業商經營業務。

購買加盟企業時要問的幾個主要問題
1.須交給加盟企業主的費用:費用項目、金額及繳納時間;
2.可能的利潤金額及可能收支平衡的時間,收支平衡時的總支出;
3.了解其他加盟企業商的實際經營故事—— 通常加盟企業主會在你們接洽一段時間後,給你一本FDD (Federal Disclosure Document),這是聯邦要求加盟企業主必須給所有很可能加入加盟企業的人的書。在這本書上,會列有其他加盟企業商的聯絡辦法。
4.了解加盟企業主訂下的須遵守的規則:加盟企業的好處是已經有一個設計好了的經營的框架,讓對經營環境不熟的人,很快進入情況;但同時,加盟企業主為了保護他們所建立的良好品牌,會對加盟企業商有些嚴格要求。加盟者務必要了解這些規範。
5.為了好好了解有關簽約的文件,你一定要請專業人士幫你審閱這方面的法律文件。

如果你有興趣了解更多有關加盟企業,請與歐陽婉貞律師事務所聯絡。



歐陽婉貞律師事務所

提供所有在美國經營企業的一條龍服務,包括移民,商業契約,僱傭等。
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